Knee

(At any time you can rotate the image or add or subtract structures. Clicking the link will always bring you back to a starting point. Remember to use rollovers to see the labels for the various structures. Also, by moving the axial plane to any point in the image on the right, you can see the cross-section on the lower left. Any coloration in the right image will be shown in the cross-sections.)

Objectives

Exercise

First, let's look at the bones. Rotate the image to 210 degrees.

Now, let's add the anterior cruciate ligament. (The femur has been colored white for emphasis) and the posterior cruciate ligament. (The anterior cruciate was restored to natural color). To get a better view, let's remove the femur and patella. Rollover the two ligaments to highlight each, in turn. To better see how the ligaments cross, rotate the image to 265 and to 50 degrees. To see them in an AP or PA direction rotate the image to 0 and 155 degrees.

Now, let's add back the femur and add the colateral ligaments. To see how the medial ligament is the one that connects to the meniscus, let's add the medial and lateral menisci . You can see a gap between the lateral ligament and meniscus. To make it easier, remove the femur. Now rotate the image to 0 degrees.

Now, let's add back the femur and add the sciatic, tibial and peroneal (fibular) nerves. (Note the superficial fibular nerve does not show up, but you can reconstruct this image using the left leg).

Now, let's add the popliteal, anterior tibial and posterior tibial arteries (The deep tibial artery does not show up). Rotate the image to 120 degrees to see the common fibular nerve wraps around the superficial surface of the fibula, while the anterior tibial artery courses deep to the fibula. Confirm this by rotating to 45 degrees. Rotate back to 180 degrees. To demonstrate where the femoral artery changes names to popliteal, first trace down the artery with the mouse as you watch the labels, then add the adductor magnus to demonstrate its hiatus. This is where the femoral artery changes name to the popliteal artery.

Now add muscles that define the borders of the popliteal fossa. First, the biceps and the semimembranosus. Second, the gastrocnemius.

Summary

©2013 Lawrence Rizzolo, SciEd Coaching and Consulting